Manhattan Active® Platform Security
Security of the customer’s data, intellectual property and business workflows is one of the highest priorities of Manhattan. Special emphasis has been put to ensure that the security aspects of communication, authentication, authorization, and access control are designed and implemented with a mindset of a security-driven software development lifecycle. Moreover, the architecture and design of Manhattan Active® Platform are continuously enhanced based on the feedback from various forms of security testing (such as static, dynamic and penetration) and reviews by InfoSec.
The topics below highlight the key design considerations of Manhattan Active® Platform security.
Manhattan Active® Platform is deployed as a distributed application using Google Kubernetes Engine on Google Cloud Platform. Each customer environment is deployed as a single-tenant stack, isolated for other stacks for the customer, and other customer environments. Isolation between environments creates a two-dimensional sandbox for each environment:
- Resource isolation: Compute resources and application runtime are grouped in separate Google projects, one per customer environment. Isolation at the project level provides physical separation of processes, virtual machines, database and storage between environments, forbidding resource access across environments.
- Network isolation: Networks and the CIDR for each customer environment are unique and independent to restrict access from one environment into another. The network firewall and ACL rules for each environment forbid network-level access across environments.
The network isolation is governed using Virtual Private Cloud networks. A VPC is configured per project (and per stack) to create a “jail cell” for the resources and addressable endpoints such that their access is limited within the VPC. Manhattan Active® Platform supports two ways of inbound communication:
- HTTPS traffic: Manhattan Active® Platform exposes two HTTPS endpoints: Authentication endpoint, and Application endpoint. All inbound HTTP traffic must use TLS v1.2 or higher. The inbound HTTPS load balancer listens to port 443. The HTTPS endpoints accept traffic from Manhattan Active® Platform web user interface, mobile applications, and REST clients.
- Asynchronous traffic: All inbound messages are received via Google Pub/Sub topics, which are then processed by Manhattan Active® Platform to be placed on internal queues for subsequent message handling. Access to Google Pub/Sub is restricted using stack specific service accounts and are shared with the customers for external integration.
Additionally, Manhattan Active® Platform supports a few administrative endpoints exclusively for the use by Manhattan Active® Operations teams. The administrative endpoints are restricted and governed for access strictly by only the members of Manhattan Active® Operations team. The diagram shown below illustrates the access control measures of the Manhattan Active® Platform control-plane (administrative access) and data-plane (application access):
As an option, Manhattan also offers technology consulting service and custom options for additional network security configurations such as the options listed below. Additional network security options may be considered and supported at Manhattan’s discretion.
- Source IP whitelisting: As a default deployment, customer environments are accessible over the (public) Internet. While the HTTP traffic to Manhattan Active® Platform is always encrypted via TLS v1.2 or higher, customers may opt to whitelist source IP addresses to allow inbound traffic to Manhattan Active® Platform only from a set of known IP addresses.
- Destination IP whitelisting: Outbound traffic from Manhattan Active® Platform originates from a set of known static IP addresses. Customers may opt to whitelist these IP addresses to allow traffic from Manhattan Active® Platform into the customer network.
Communications to, from and within Manhattan Active® Platform is a complex ecosystem. Manhattan Active® Platform architecture ensures that all aspects of the communication system remain secure and protected from parties with potentially malicious intent. This section lists key paths of the communication security and encryption:
- All network traffic between Google Cloud Platform data centers is encrypted (TLS v1.2+)
- All inbound network traffic to Manhattan Active® Platform is encrypted (TLS v1.2+)
- All network traffic between Manhattan Active® Platform and Google Cloud services (such as Google Cloud SQL, Cloud Storage or Pub/Sub) is encrypted (TLS v1.2+)
- All outbound network traffic from Manhattan Active® Platform is encrypted (TLS v1.2+). This applies to the invocations built into the base product; there could be additional custom invocations to 3rd party systems that may not support HTTPS traffic. While customers are highly discouraged from using unencrypted traffic, such invocations are not forbidden.
Service Accounts and Security Context
Asynchronous communication to- and from- the Manhattan Active® Platform and customer’s host systems is achieved using messaging via Google Cloud Pub/Sub. To authorize the messages, and to establish an authenticated system-user context, Manhattan Active® Platform relies on Google IAM Service Accounts and Roles.
To authorize Manhattan Active® Platform to pull and post messages to Pub/Sub, a built-in Service Account is used that is instrumented in the containers via a Kubernetes Secret. This Service Account has limited access to perform Pub/Sub operations necessary for topic management and message processing.
To authorize the customer to pull and post messages to Pub/Sub, a Service Account is created per deployment and shared with the customer via secure encrypted channel. This Service Account has limited access to perform Pub/Sub operations necessary for the business use-cases of the client and with restrictions to allow access only to the Pub/Sub topics that relate to the customer. The Service Accounts shared with the customers can be recycled based on the customer’s request. Manhattan does not require a regularly scheduled recycling of the Service Account keys.
Upon receipt of an authorized message via Google Cloud Pub/Sub, Manhattan Active® Platform establishes a security context for the message using the username, organization name and tenant ID from the message header and processes the message within that context. Regardless of depth of the call stack, or the length of the chain of application components that process the message, the security context is always preserved. The context helps maintain the security and privacy of the data in the message by ensuring that the exposure of this data is limited to the processing elements pertaining to that user, organization, and tenant.
Data Encryption & Encoding
Manhattan takes customer data security very seriously and commits to rigorous compliance and protection policies for the customer data. To ensure data security and to prevent unauthorized access to data in case of a network security breach, data in Manhattan Active® Platform is encrypted in transit and at rest:
- Encryption of data in transit: As described in the Deployment Security section above, inbound HTTP and messaging traffic is accepted only over HTTPS; application endpoints of Manhattan Active® Platform and Google Pub/Sub require traffic to use TLS v1.2 or higher.
- Encryption of data at rest: Persistent volumes used by Manhattan Active® Platform services (Database, Elasticsearch and RabbitMQ) are encrypted by default. All persistent volumes offered by Google Compute Engine are encrypted out-of-the-box.
- Encryption of payment data: In addition to storage encryption, Manhattan Active® Platform also encrypts payment data (such as gift card numbers, expiration dates, payment codes etc.) using a high-strength encryption algorithm (Blowfish) supported by JDK.
- Encryption of sensitive properties: All sensitive configuration properties, such as API keys, account numbers, passwords, and access codes, are encrypted using a high-strength encryption algorithm provided by the Spring Crypto library (AES)
- Password hashing: User passwords and PINs are hashed using a high-strength hashing algorithm provided by the Spring Crypto library (BCrypt)
As shown in the diagram below, the HTTP access to Manhattan Active® application resources is restricted to the users or system authorized to access those resources. The restrictions are controlled via user authentication, grants-driven permission control and data access. The authorization mechanism is implemented using the industry standard OAuth2 protocol and Spring Security framework.
- Manhattan Active® Platform supports Open ID or SAML for identity verification and authentication.
- The user sign-ons are SSO enabled. The OAuth2 access token obtained with the sign-in process is used throughout the session spanning across applications.
- The invocations from the mobile application are stateless (no session maintained on the server). The invocations originating from the mobile app are OAuth2 enabled.
- The invocations from the browser are stateful (a session is maintained per user sign-in on the server). The invocations originating from the browser are session ID enabled, where the access token is maintained in the server-side session.
- The access tokens are created with a predefined expiration period. The token becomes invalid when it expires.
The illustration below describes the authentication and access control flow for a user or system invoking the HTTP endpoints of Manhattan Active® Platform:
Manhattan Active® Platform standardizes authorization with OAuth2 for HTTP traffic. For identity provisioning and active directory integration, Manhattan Active® Platform supports a variety of authentication modes with Open ID and SAML:
- External Authentication Mode with Open ID is a login configuration where the user is exclusively authenticated via an external Identity Provider using Open ID as the identity protocol. In this mode, all users are maintained by the external Identity Provider.
- External Authentication Mode with SAML is a login configuration where the user is exclusively authenticated via an external Identity Provider using SAML as the identity protocol. In this mode, all users are maintained by the external Identity Provider.
- Mixed Authentication Mode with User Discovery is a login configuration where the user identity is managed either in the Native authentication source by Manhattan Active® Platform, or by an External Identity Provider with Open ID or SAML. The determination for the authentication mode for the actual user is made in real-time when the user attempts to log in, based on the user’s username. In this mode, the user is first prompted to enter their username, and the UI then redirects to the authentication mode configured for that user.
- Native Authentication Mode is a login configuration where the user is exclusively authenticated by Manhattan Active® Platform. In this mode, the user directory, and credentials (in the form of usernames and passwords) are maintained in Manhattan Active® Platform database. Users that are maintained with the native authentication mode are referred to as native users to distinguish them from the users that are maintained in the corporate directory. If no other authentication mode is configured, Native Authentication Mode is the default configuration.
Manhattan supports known Open ID and SAML Identity Providers for configuring as the External Authentication Mode. Integration with the IDPs listed below has been tested and supported:
- Microsoft Azure AD: Open ID & SAML
- ADFS: Open ID & SAML
- Okta: Open ID & SAML
- CA SiteMinder: Open ID
- Ping Identity: Open ID
- MITREid: Open ID
- KeyCloak: Open ID
- IBM Security Access Manager: SAML
Do note, that IDPs may have their nuances - not all IDPs support the full Open ID and/or SAML standards or may support additional features that are not part of the standards. In such cases, Manhattan offers technical support and consulting to accommodate the testing and validation necessary for a specific IDP to fully integrate with Manhattan Active® Platform.
User & Identity Types
Manhattan Active® Platform supports two user types for authentication:
(Human) users: The user accounts which are configured for the human users who use the application’s user interface and login via a web browser or a mobile application to access the system interactively.
- Human users cannot access API endpoints, nor can invoke the application in a non-interactive mode.
- Human users can be configured either via the Native Authentication (see the section above) or could be maintained by an external Identity Provider. Manhattan Active® Platform supports the Mixed Authentication mode, where a subset of the users (typically, temporary or non-corporate) users are maintained by the Native Authentication, while the rest of the users (typically, permanent or corporate) users are maintained by the external Identity Provider.
- Certain (configurable) password restrictions and policies apply to human users maintained by Native Authentication.
Robot users: The user accounts which are configured for system-to-system integration for non-interactive access of Manhattan Active® application.
- Robot users cannot access the browser or mobile app user interface.
- All Robot users are exclusively maintained by Native Authentication and cannot be maintained by an external Identity Provider.
- Password restrictions or policies do not apply to robot users. Their passwords can be cycled as needed, but the password cycling is not mandatory.
For more, see Auditability understand how Manhattan Active® Platform captures activities and changes that can be used for tracking, troubleshooting, forensics, and learning.
- Kartik Pandya: Vice President, Manhattan Active® Platform, R&D.
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